This coffee ice cream recipe produces extremely smooth, dense, and creamy ice cream with an intense coffee flavour. It will be split into three sections: SECTION 1: The Science of Ice Cream Making and Preparation Tips; SECTION 2: Full Recipe; and SECTION 3: Quick-Read Recipe.
Please click here to read SECTION 1: The Science of Ice Cream Making and Preparation Tips. I strongly recommend starting with this section.
YOU MIGHT ALSO FIND THE FOLLOWING POSTS HELPFUL:
- Lemon Curd Ice Cream – Recipe
- Roasted Banana Ice Cream – Recipe
- Vanilla Ice Cream – Recipe
- Cuisinart ICE-100 vs Breville BCI600XL vs Whynter ICM-200LS
- The role of protein in ice cream
- Why does ice cream melt?
- Ice crystals in ice cream
SECTION 2: FULL RECIPE
About 15 minutes
About 35 minutes
Full-fat, semi-skimmed, or skimmed milk
Skimmed milk powder
80g Gourmet whole coffee beans or ground coffee
Produces just under 900 ml (0.95 quarts) of ice cream mix
1. THE IMPORTANCE OF MILK FAT
Milk fat contributes significantly to the rich, full, and creamy flavour and to the smooth texture of ice cream (Goff & Hartel, 2013). Not enough milk fat is likely to produce ice cream that is coarse or sandy, whereas too much will likely result in a heavy buttery texture. Above is the spreadsheet I use to calculate my mixes and I’ve included it for you guys to accurately calculate the quantities of milk and cream that you’ll need. It’s based on the mix formulation calculations in Ice Cream (7th ed) (2013) by Goff & Hartel, which I highly recommend reading.
It’s important that you check the fat content percentage of the milk and cream that you’ll be using. Here in the U.K, our double cream and skimmed milk contain between 47.5% and 50.5% and less than 0.5% of milk fat respectively. You can use full-fat, semi-skimmed, or skimmed milk.
To start, enter the fat percentage of your cream in the yellow Cream Fat % cell located on the top left of the spreadsheet. Do the same for the milk fat percentage in the yellow Milk Fat (%) cell. PRESS ENTER, OR CLICK ON A DIFFERENT CELL, FOR THE SPREADSHEET TO UPDATE. The spreadsheet will then display the quantities of milk, cream, sugar, egg yolks, and skimmed milk powder needed (in grams) in the cells in blue.
2. PREPARING COFFEE EXTRACT
Belitz et al. (2009) describe flavour as the interaction of taste, odour, and textural feeling which results from compounds divided into two broad classes: those responsible for taste, and those responsible for odours.
2.1. TASTE COMPOUNDS
Taste compounds are generally nonvolatile at room temperature, meaning that they interact only with the taste receptors on the tongue (Belitz et al., 2009). The four important basic taste perceptions are provided by sour, sweet, bitter, and salty compounds.
2.2. AROMA COMPOUNDS
Aroma compounds, on the other hand, are volatile, meaning that they evaporate at room temperature and are perceived by the odour receptor sites of the nose. They reach these receptors in two ways: 1. through the nose; and 2. via the throat after being released by chewing (Belitz et al., 2009).
Myhrvold et al. (2011) argue that it is the aroma that gives a food most of its characteristic sensor signature and that what we smell in our nose is as important or more so than what the mouth tastes. Similarly, McGee (2004) argues that most of what we experience as flavour is odour.
Alcohol, being volatile, releases aroma compounds relatively quickly, giving a sharp burst of flavour. We’ll therefore be using a tincture, or an alcohol infusion, to give our coffee ice cream a sharp burst of flavour. In my tests, coffee ice cream made with 2 teaspoons of coffee extract had a more pronounced flavour than that made without coffee extract.
For the coffee extract, infuse 10g of freshly ground coffee with 50g of vodka in your fridge overnight.
2.3 EXTRACTING FLAVOUR
Most of the aroma compounds in coffee are non-polar and so dissolve more in fat, oil, or alcohol, than in water. We’ll be steeping ground coffee beans in our mix overnight to dissolve the flavour compounds in the mix. The milk fat in ice cream hangs on to aroma compounds during eating meaning that their flavour appears more gradually and lasts longer (McGee 2004).
3. PREPARING AN ICE BATH
Before you start preparing your mix, take a large bowl and fill it with enough ice to make an ice bath. Have a large zip-lock freezer bag ready next to the bowl, along with some table salt. We’ll be using the zip lock bag and ice bath to ensure that the mix is cooled as quickly as possible after heating. This minimises the time the mix spends in the ‘danger zone’, between 5°C (41°F) and 65°C (149°F), where bacteria likes to multiply. The longer your mix spends in this temperature range, the more bacteria is likely to multiply and impart an undesirable taste and smell.
4. HEATING THE MIX
Weigh your pan and record its weight. We’ll use this weight to check whether we’ve achieved the desired 13% reduction after 25 minutes of heating.
Once you’ve prepared the ice bath and weighed your pan, add the sugar and skimmed milk powder followed by the egg yolks. Mix the yolks, sugar and skimmed milk powder to help prevent the yolks from curdling during heating.
Add the cream and milk and spend a good minute or so mixing all the ingredients before you switch on the heat.
Over a medium heat, heat the mixture until the temperature reaches 71°C (160°F), making sure that you’re constantly stirring. You’ll risk burning the milk proteins and curdling the egg yolks if you do not constantly stir the mix. It takes me 10 minutes to get my mix up to 71°C (160°F).
Once the temperature reaches 71°C (160°F), turn the heat down to low, move your pan slightly off the heat, and continue heating and stirring until the temperature reaches 72°C (162°F). Use a food thermometer to keep your mix at 72°C (162°F) for 25 minutes, adjusting the position of your pan to help regulate the temperature. Don’t worry if you go slightly over 72°C (162°F); just try and keep the temperature as close to 72°C (162°F) as you can.
5. COOLING THE MIX
After 25 minutes of heating at 72°C (162°F), take the pan off the heat and weigh it. If the weight is greater than 1044g plus the weight of the pan, place it back on the heat and continue heating for another 2-3 minutes or until you get the weight down to 1044g plus the weight of the pan.
Carefully pour the mix into the zip-lock bag and seal. Place the sealed bag in the ice bath and pour about a tablespoon of salt onto the ice to lower the temperature and cool the mix faster.
6. GRINDING THE COFFEE
Once the mix has cooled to about 10°C (50°F), use a coffee grinder to finely grind 70g of coffee beans. You can also use ground coffee as long it’s fresh. Add the ground coffee beans to the zip-lock bag and mix well. Once the mix has cooled to below 5°C (41°F), place the zip-lock bag in the fridge and leave overnight to age and to extract the coffee flavour compounds.
TIP #1 – ADD THE COFFEE TO THE COLD MIX
During testing, I found that adding the ground coffee to the mix at room temperature or below produced ice cream with a more pronounced coffee flavour. This compared to adding the ground coffee to the mix during the heating stage, which produced ice cream with a more subdued flavour.
7. CHURNING THE MIX
Once you’ve aged your mix overnight, sieve your mixture into a large bowl. You’ll need to spend a good 10 minutes using a large spoon to press down firmly on the ground coffee to extract the flavour. You’ll get a nice dark-coloured and stronger coffee flavour the more of the mix you extract from the ground coffee. The small coffee granules that seep through the sieve will add flavour and colour and won’t adversely affect texture.
Pour the mix into your machine followed by 2 teaspoons of the coffee extract.
TIP#2 – FREEZER BOWL WALL TEMPERATURE
If you’re using an ice cream machine with an in-built compressor, with the bowl in the machine, switch on the compressor and leave it running for 15 minutes before adding the mix. This will ensure that the freezer bowl is as cold as possible when the mix is added, which increases the rate of nucleation and reduces residence time.
TIP#3 – EFFICIENT HEAT TRANSFER
If you’re using the Cuisinart ICE 30BC, use your thumb to push the dasher against the side of the bowl as soon as you pour in the mix. This will ensure that the dasher scrapes off the layer of ice that freezes to the side of the bowl. Any ice that is frozen to the side of the bowl will act as an insulator, slowing the release of heat from the ice cream to the bowl and increasing the residence time. Goff & Hartel (2013) note that even a very thin layer of ice remaining on the bowl wall can cause a dramatic reduction in heat transfer.
Use a spoon to push along any static lumps of ice cream and ensure that the mix is constantly moving whilst in the machine. Static lumps will likely take longer to freeze, resulting in greater ice crystal growth.
Your ice cream will be ready when it develops a nice dry, stiff texture, and starts forming ribbon-like swirls. It should have a draw temperature (the temperature at which the partially frozen ice cream is removed from the machine) of between -9°C and -12°C (15.8°F and 10.4°F) with a lower draw temperature usually resulting in smaller ice crystals (Arbuckle, 1986).
Below are the residence times and draw temperatures for the domestic machines I’ve tried:
- Lello Musso Pola 5030 Dessert Maker: 900 ml (0.95 quarts) mix – 13 minutes, -11°C (12.2°F).
- Lello 4080 Musso Lussino 1.5-Quart Ice Cream Maker: 600 ml (0.63 quarts) – 16 minutes, -11°C (12.2°F).
- Cuisinart ICE-100 Ice Cream and Gelato Maker: 900 ml (0.95 quarts) mix – 35 minutes, -10°C (14°F).
- Breville BCI600XL Smart Scoop Ice Cream Maker: 700 ml (0.74 quarts) – 34 minutes, -9°C (15.8°F).
- Whynter ICM-200LS: 900 ml (0.95 quarts) mix – 28 minutes, -10°C (14°F).
- Cuisinart ICE 30-BC: 900 ml (0.95 quarts) mix – 34 minutes, -11°C (12.2°F).
9. EXTRACTION TIME
The extraction time (the time it takes to get your partially frozen ice cream out of your machine and into the freezer) has a considerable effect on ice crystal size. This is because as you extract your ice cream from the bowl and into a plastic container, it spends time at room temperature. At this relatively warm room temperature, some of the ice melts from the large ice crystals and the crystals that were initially small melt completely. When you then get your ice cream into your freezer for the static freezing stage, the melted ice re-freezes onto the large ice crystals that survived. The result is that the total number of ice crystals is reduced and their size increases, resulting in coarse or grainy texture.
TIP#4 – QUICK EXTRACTION
Just holding ice cream at a relatively warm room temperature as you extract it from your machine results in an increase in mean ice crystal size and a decrease in the number of ice crystals present. It’s therefore important that you extract the ice cream from the freezer bowl and get it into your freezer as quickly as possible.
10. THE STATIC FREEZING STAGE
At a draw temperature of between -9°C and -12°C (15.8°F and 10.4°F), your ice cream will have a consistency very similar to that of soft serve ice cream and will need to be placed in your freezer to harden. After about 4 hours, depending on your freezer, your ice cream will have a nice firm scoopable consistency, somewhere around -15°C (5°F), and be ready to serve.
11. SERVING YOUR ICE CREAM
Serve your ice cream at around -15°C (5°F). As the serving temperature is increased from -14.4 (6.1) to -7.8°C (18°F), flavour and sweetness become more pronounced.
If you do give the recipe a go, I’d love to hear your thoughts so please do get in touch. Please help other chefs by using the stars at the top of the page to rate the recipe and please spread the love on facebook with the buttons below. Ruben 🙂
SECTION 3: QUICK-READ RECIPE
- For the coffee extract, infuse 10g of freshly ground coffee with 50g of vodka in your fridge overnight.
- The next day, fill a large bowl with some ice. Place some table salt and a zip-lock bag next to the bowl ready for later.
- Combine the sugar, skimmed milk powder, egg yolks, cream, and milk in a large pan. Heat over a medium heat until the temperature reaches 71°C (160°F), making sure you’re constantly stirring.
- When the mix reaches 71°C (160°F), quickly turn the heat down to low and position your pan slightly off the heat. Continue heating and stirring until the temperature reaches 72°C (162°F).
- Once the mix reaches 72°C (162°F), continue heating for 25 minutes, whilst constantly stirring. Keep the temperature as close to 72°C (162°F) as you can throughout this 25 minute heating period.
- After 25 minutes of heating, carefully pour the mix into the zip lock bag and seal. Place the bag in the ice bath and pour about a tablespoon of salt over the ice.
- Once the mix has cooled to room temperature, grind 70g of fresh beans and add to the mix in the zip-lock bag. Stir well. Place the mix and ground coffee in your fridge and leave to age and infuse overnight.
- The next day, sieve the mix into a large bowl. Spend a good 10 minutes or so pressing down on the coffee beans to extract as much of the flavour as possible. .
- Pour the mix into your ice cream machine, followed by 2 teaspoons of the coffee extract.
- After about 30 minutes of churning, depending on your machine, quickly empty the ice cream into a plastic container and place in the freezer for about 4 hours to harden.
- After about 4 hours, your ice cream will have a nice firm consistency and will be ready to serve.
Arbuckle, W.S., 1986. Ice Cream (4th ed). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Belitz, H.D., Grosch, W., & Schieberle, P., 2009. Food Chemistry (4th ed). Berlin: Springer.
Ben-Yoseph E., and Hartel, R. W., 1998. Computer simulation of ice recrystallization in ice cream during storage. Journal of Food Engineering 38(3):309–29.
Cook, K. L. K., & Hartel, R. W., 2010. Mechanisms of Ice Crystallisation in Ice Cream Production. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 9 (2).
Damodaran, S., 1996. Functional properties. In: Nakai, S., Modler, H.W. (Eds.), Food Proteins – Properties and Characterization. VCH Publisher, New York, pp. 167–234.
Donhowe, D. P., Hartel R. W., and Bradley R.L., 1991. Determination of ice crystal size distributions in frozen desserts. Journal of Dairy Science. 74.
Donhowe, D. P., 1993. Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream and Ice Milk. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsm-Madison.
Donhowe, D. P., and Hartel, R. W., 1996. Recrystallization of ice in ice cream during controlled accelerated storage. International Dairy Journal. 6.
Drewett, E. M. & Hartel, R. W., 2007. Ice Crystallization in a Scraped Surface Freezer. Journal of Food Engineering. 78(3). 1060-1066
Flores, A. A., & Goff, H. D., 1999. Ice Crystal Size distribution in Dynamically Frozen Model Solutions and Ice Cream as Affected by Stabilzers. Journal of Dairy Science. Volume 82. 7. 1399–1407
Goff, H. D., 2012. Finding Science in Ice Cream. Presentation – Royal Canadian Institute for the Advancement of Science.
Goff, H. D., and Hartel R. W., 2013. Ice Cream. Seventh Edition. New York Springer.
McGee, H., 2004. On food and cooking. New York: Scribner.
Monahan, F. J., McClements, D. J. & Kinsella, J. E., 1993. Polymerization of whey proteins in whey protein-stabilized emulsions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 41.1826–1829.
Myhrvold, N., Young, C. and Bilet, M., 2011. Modernist Cuisine. China: The Cooking Lab.
Phillips, L. G., Schulman, W. and Kinsella, J. E., 1990. pH and heat treatment effects on foaming of whey protein isolate. Journal of Food Science. 55:1116–1119.
Russell, A. B., Cheney, P. E., & Wantling, S. D., 1999. Influence of freezing conditions on ice crystallisation in ice cream. Journal of Food Engineering. 29.
Sava, N., Rotaru, G. & Hendrickx, M., 2005. Heat-induced changes in solubility and surface hydrophobicity of β-Lactoglobulin. Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies. Volume 11. 1. 41-48.